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latest news

Britain
'Slow coup' against left Labour leader

02/05/2016: Anti-Semitism charges a cynical campaign by right-wing to ditch Jeremy Corbyn

  Britain

May Day 2016
The idea of May Day on the march

01/05/2016: "The brilliant idea of May Day is the immediate stepping forward of the proletarian masses"

  May Day

Israel/Palestine
The Marxist left, the national conflict and the Palestinian struggle

29/04/2016: The necessity of a class approach and a socialist alternative

  Israel / Palestine

Austria
Stop the rise of the far right!

27/04/2016: Against Hofer, the government and the system of the super-rich!

  Austria

Greece
Athens bus cleaners hold solid 48 hour strike

27/04/2016: Workers resist inhuman working conditions and violation of working rights

  Greece

France
One-day strike set for 28 April

26/04/2016: A final stage before indefinite action against Hollande’s government?

  France

Germany
Huge protest against TTIP deal

25/04/2016: For decisive unions’ action to stop bosses’ plans!

  Germany

Britain
Jeremy Corbyn’s EU u-turn

23/04/2016: The bosses’ EU is no friend of workers

  Britain

Belgium
New major social conflict in the making

22/04/2016: Second action plan needed to stop the Michel government

  Belgium

US
The un-Democratic Primary

22/04/2016: Why we need new party of the 99%

  US

South Africa
Zuma & the ANC must fall

22/04/2016: Build a socialist mass workers party for a government of the working class

  South Africa

 Video
Paul Murphy speaks on Brexit referendum and for a socialist Europe

21/04/2016: Socialist Party TD (MP) exposes real nature of EU in Irish parliament

  Europe, Video

Iceland
Mass protests continue

21/04/2016: CWI’s programme explained

  Iceland

India
Workers oppose Modi proposals

21/04/2016: Eye-witness account of successful protest

  India

 Video
Peter Taaffe debates with Paul Mason on BBC TV

20/04/2016: Socialist Party General Secretary debates with author and journalist on revolutionary socialism today

  Britain, Video

 Sudan
Solidarity from the Education Rights Campaign (ERC) - Nigeria with the student protests in Khartoum

20/04/2016: The ERC, the national student campaign linked to the DSM (CWI in Nigeria) is displaying its support for the student movement in Sudan

  Nigeria, Solidarity, Sudan

Poland
Anger at abortion ban plan

20/04/2016: Protests and a new spontaneous movement for abortion rights erupt

  Poland

 Sudan
Solidarity with the students’ protests!

19/04/2016: Free all arrested students now

  Solidarity, Sudan

Iran
Jailed trade unionists announce start of hunger strikes on April 29

19/04/2016: Statement by Jafar Azimzadeh, a leader of the Free Union of Iranian Workers, and Esmail Abdi, a leader of the Iranian Teachers Trade Association

  Iran

Capitalism
a failing system

18/04/2016: A new book, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, analyses the downward course of the US economy – and the limits of the whole capitalist system

  Review, US

 Video
Socialist TV appearance ’goes viral’ in US

18/04/2016: FOX interview with Darletta Scruggs, Socialist Alternative member, viewed millions of times

  US, Video

Cuba
Obama’s visit

16/04/2016: Easing of embargo to promote US capitalist interests

  Cuba

Burma
Democrats have historic majority in parliament

16/04/2016: But army remains powerful force

  Burma

Belgium
Successful ‘Socialism 2016’ weekend event

14/04/2016: Inequality, war and insecurity show the urgency of the struggle for socialism

  Belgium

Review
’Militant’ by Michael Crick

14/04/2016: Lessons of Militant vital for anti-austerity struggles today

  Britain, History, Review

Britain
Panama Papers reveal corrupt system of the 1%

13/04/2016: Build a party in the interests of the millions not the millionaires

  Britain

France
Workers and youth on the streets

12/04/2016: Full-scale struggle with ‘Socialist’ government erupting

  France

Hong Kong
Panama Papers: Hong Kong protest

12/04/2016: “Tax the rich” shout protesters at Mossack Fonseca’s Hong Kong office

  Hong Kong

Netherlands
Dutch say ‘No’ to EU-Ukraine Treaty

11/04/2016: Major blow against “endless austerity” Liberal/Labour government

  Netherlands

 Brazil
Solidarity with attacked civil servants

08/04/2016: Hired thugs beat rank and file trade union protesters

  Brazil, Solidarity

Iceland
"You're fired!"

07/04/2016: Protesters stay on streets after forcing PM's resignation

  Iceland

China
Panama Papers name eight Chinese leaders

06/04/2016: Massive clampdown by state censors

  China

Britain
Panama Papers scandal

06/04/2016: ‘They’re all in it together!’

  Britain

Sri Lanka
Left political leader imprisoned

06/04/2016: Socialists demand immediate release

  Sri Lanka

Portugal

’Troika’ comes to town

www.socialistworld.net, 05/05/2011
website of the committee for a workers' international, CWI

Elections loom as IMF’s austerity plans revealed

Danny Byrne, CWI

Protests, strikes, bailouts, governments collapsing and elections. This is the situation in Portugal, the latest country in Europe to fall victim to the “aid” of the IMF and EU. It is passing through dramatic days. Representatives of the IMF, European Central Bank and European Commission, dubbed “the Troika”, are engaged in daily discussions in Lisbon. At these encounters the diktats of these vultures are fed to their willing representatives in the Portuguese caretaker government. Although officially secret, the daily leaks from these fraternal discussions reveal crumb by crumb, the austerity which will characterise life for millions in Portugal under Troika rule.

Householders will no longer receive the tax relief. This often means the difference between shelter and homelessness. The 13th and 14th months “extra” payments in public sector wages are to go, or be replaced by government bond investments! These are just a few examples of the many draconian measures that going to be introduced. They will be accompanied by wholesale attacks on workers’ rights, including a “reform” that will cheapen sackings to and make them easier. There will also be an attack on collective bargaining for the trade unions. All this is to “"save the country"”, according to the establishment, the banks, and capitalist parties! But it was them who ruined the country in the first place!

Economy crashed by capitalism

The main Portuguese banks, which now preach the necessity of bending over backwards to please the Troika, were the very ones who pulled the trigger on the Portuguese economy, leading the government to call in the EU/IMF. They withdrew together from funding state debt at the beginning of April, with the official request for external aid being made only hours later. What better illustration of the insane dictatorship of these parasites! Any “socialist” government in the least bit worthy of the name would have immediately nationalised the banks in response to this, ensuring the funding of government could continue. But the completely misnamed and pro-capitalist “Socialist” Party government of Jose Socrates, who had recently resigned as Prime Minister, having failed to ram through yet another austerity package to please its EU/IMF masters, took this ultimatum with typical servitude.

This cynical action by the banks was wholly motivated by a desire to maximise profit at the expense of the nation’s crisis. While poverty beckons for millions due to the austerity already implemented in crisis-ridden Portugal, the picture is not one of “sacrifice for all” as the capitalists put it. The bankers are still living the high life! Millennium BCP, BES, Santander Totta and BPI, the five biggest private banks, recently announced profits of over 252 million euros, in the first trimester of this year (during which the country has constantly teetered on the brink of bankruptcy)! They hope that the conclusion of a deal with the EU/IMF, in the interests of the big bankers, will create the conditions for further bumper profits in the future.

The measures they advocate now represent a declaration of savage class warfare against the poor. It is also, in economic terms, a recipe for a deeper crisis, recession and default. Already Portugal represents a text-book example of the failure of austerity to lead to economic recovery. The Troika’s austerity will deepen the crisis further. Deflationary measures, such as the axing of wages and benefits, along with the facilitation of precarious labour and easy sackings will have a disastrous impact. Across the border in Spain, a labour reform package similar to what the IMF is proposing, was also justified on the grounds it would cut unemployment. This provoked a general strike in September last year. Since it was introduced unemployment has jumped to almost 5 million. Cheapening sackings is a green light to employers to make redundancies and encourage the existence of precarious jobs and contracts, something already endemic for young workers in Portugal.

FMI fora daqui - IMF out of here!

The problem that Portuguese and international capitalism face in attempting to push through the Troika deal and austerity is that workers and youth will instinctively move into struggle to oppose it. This was demonstrated in the movement which erupted and led to the downfall of the Socrates government. The ten days preceding his resignation saw a combined total of over 400,000 people take to the streets and many strikes taking place. This followed a general strike on 24 November 2010 which brought the country to a standstill. 85% of workers downed tools! The opportunistic decision of the PSD (main conservative opposition party) to vote against Socrates’ “PEC IV” (austerity measures) [after supporting the first three], which led to the government’s collapse was a clear reaction to the mass revulsion that has greeted these anti-worker policies. However, the PSD vote against the outgoing government, will not save them from the wrath of the same workers and youth who will fight any future government implementing Troika diktats. These planned attacks will surpass the brutality of the PEC IV package.

Already, the ruling class’s request for external aid and discussions with the Troika have provoked open opposition. The last ten days have seen thousands take to the streets on two separate occasions. On 25th April, in celebration of the 37th anniversary of the Portuguese 1974 April revolution, and on 1 May mass protests took place. On both these demonstrations, the dominant slogan was "FMI fora daqui!"” (IMF out of here!). Unlike the Irish, the Portuguese people have had previous experience of what IMF intervention represents. In 1983, the IMF intervened, with disastrous consequences for the majority of people, when living standards fell, prices soared and unemployment rocketed upwards.

The current discussions on a possible bailout package are a complete and openly anti-democratic sham. What right do these politicians and marketers have to conclude such an agreement behind the backs of the Portuguese people even before an election takes place to replace the hated Socrates government. This is a stark exposure of what the capitalists mean by democracy. The dictatorship of the financiers, markets, and speculators is allowed to rule supreme in order to defend their interests. To the Troika and the Portuguese capitalists, the wishes of the majority of workers and youth are of no consequence, in their determination to drive their agenda forward. Socialismo Revolucionario (CWI in Portugal) demands that the working class movement; – the trade unions and the left parties - the Portuguese Communist Party and the Bloco Esquerda (Left Bloc) begin an immediate campaign of mobilisation and mass struggle to prevent such a deal being agreed. The choice facing working people is between years of suffering and poverty to pay for the mistakes of the rich, or joining the fight for an alternative.

For mass workers’ action to stop the Troika and government!

The belated announcement by the CGTP (the largest trade union federation) of mass demonstrations on 19 May against the Troika intervention’s represent a delayed but welcome break of the trade union leaders’ previous silence on what to do. Indeed, the leaders of the CGTP and UGT union federations, rather than mounting an immediate struggle, entered into negotiations with the Troika when it arrived in Lisbon. However, these demonstrations, despite their inevitable mass character, will not be sufficient to force back a determined and united ruling elite with European and world capitalism behind it. The general strike which rocked the country on 24 November gave a glimpse of the potential power of the working class when organised and engaged in effective action. The strike action which will involve many public sector workers on 6 May will give another example of this power in action.

A real programme of militant struggle, beginning with a 24-hour general strike of all workers, followed by further general strikes and co-ordinated actions, with the aim of stopping the elite in their tracks is what is immediately necessary. Socialismo Revolucionario comrades intervened in the country’s recent demonstrations with material arguing for this course of action and met with a positive response from many.

Bosses want a “national unity” government for assault on workers

To their credit, the left parties in parliament, the Communist Party and Left Bloc (which together command about 20% of support) have refused to enter into negotiations with the Troika, and opposed the intervention. For this stand, they have come under intense pressure from the establishment to be involved in an agreement.

In order to most effectively come after all the modern gains of working people in Portugal, the bosses need maximum unity - a ‘united front’ of their representatives in parliament and outside, to force such policies through. It is for this reason that in the last days of the electoral debate, the need for a “strong united” government has been stressed by the ruling elite. On 25 April, a joint press conference was held by former Presidents from both the PS and PSD, all together urging the capitalist parties to work constructively together. This call, which has been echoed ad infinitum is a clear call for a national government, of both the PSD and PS to be formed after the elections, if, as opinion polls indicate, neither party wins enough for an all-out majority. These voices hope that such a grand coalition would be strong enough to drive through the austerity package.

For a real alternative! Fight for a United Front of the left with socialist policies!

The coming elections will be extremely politicised, due to the gravity of the crisis in the country and the clear political polarisation which exists. The lines of the debate will be drawn around the main questions: do the Troika represents a way out or whether there is an alternative to austerity. These questions are so serious, of such profound importance to the lives and futures of people, that only serious answers will be considered by the mass of people. The left parties must answer these questions with clear and revolutionary socialist alternative that is fundamentally different from all the other parties.

Such answers cannot be provided within the framework of the market capitalist system, which is languishing in crisis. From the point of view of this system, in which the wealth and power of the super-rich are unquestioned and unquestionable, then there really is no alternative to brutal austerity! In their logic it makes perfect sense to accept state bankruptcy and poverty living standards to pay for the debts and mistakes of the bankers and big bosses, because their logic is that of the dictatorship of the bankers and big bosses. The only answers which can genuinely protect the living standards of people, combat unemployment, bring about economic growth or get Portugal out of the crisis are those which challenge capitalism. Unfortunately, this has not been the case until now, with both the PCP and Left Bloc only demanding taxation of the rich, - which the CWI supports - – but without explaining how this can be done without breaking with capitalism as part of a socialist programme and alternative.

Genuinely socialist policies - of refusing to pay the debt; introducing a massive programme of socially use public works to provide jobs; the introduction of a democratically planned socialist economy based on the nationalisation of the banks, financial institutions and major companies to use the wealth of society for the benefit of the mass of population could rapidly win support in Portugal if popularised and fought for by the left and workers’ movement. The example of Ireland, in which recent elections saw the Socialist Party (CWI) and United Left Alliance make an important breakthrough, could be emulated in Portugal, but on an immensely higher level! The current strength of the Portuguese left in parliament and society offers a huge platform to put forward such ideas.

The Communist Party’s election slogan of “for a left patriotic government” partly represents a step forward in the sense that it raises broadly speaking the question of an alternative government to one made up of the capitalist parties. But unless such a slogan is given clarity by linking it to concrete socialist proposals, it is insufficient. Also, the term “patriotic” is potentially confusing and could give credence to the idea that a national solution to the crisis of Portuguese capitalism is possible. On the contrary, in this international crisis, where the ruling classes are conducting an international assault, then an internationalist position is not only desirable, but absolutely necessary. Linking up with the working people of Greece, Ireland Spain and other countries under the boot of EU/IMF austerity and fighting for an alternative socialist Europe must be the call of the hour from the left and workers’ movement.

The Communist Party and the Left Bloc, which have a history of bitter sectarianism between them, recently took the positive step of beginning joint discussions on a common platform against the crisis and IMF. The CWI in Portugal has consistently demanded that these parties form a united front armed with socialist policies, which together with the mass movement, can challenge for political power in Portugal, to fight for a government of a different type, for a government of working people, based democratic planning of the economy, as an alternative to capitalism. Now the hour for this demand to be made reality has truly come! Socrates himself recently launched an attack on the left, denouncing them for “never presenting an alternative of government”. The left should begin to present an alternative of government, not that which Socrates calls for, but a government of the left parties with socialist policies.



Europe

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NEWS

Britain: 'Slow coup' against left Labour leader
02/05/2016, Hannah Sell, Socialist Party deputy general secretary :
Anti-Semitism charges a cynical campaign by right-wing to ditch Jeremy Corbyn

May Day 2016: The idea of May Day on the march
01/05/2016, CWI socialist greetings/Two articles by Rosa Luxemburg :
"The brilliant idea of May Day is the immediate stepping forward of the proletarian masses"

Austria: Stop the rise of the far right!
27/04/2016, Tilman Ruster, SLP (CWI in Austria) :
Against Hofer, the government and the system of the super-rich!

Greece: Athens bus cleaners hold solid 48 hour strike
27/04/2016, Apostolos Kasimeris (Board Member of OASA’s Athens Bus Workers’ Union) and Eleni Mitsou (Xekinima - CWI Greece) :
Workers resist inhuman working conditions and violation of working rights

Germany: Huge protest against TTIP deal
25/04/2016, Angelika Teweleit, Socialist Alternative (SAV- the CWI in Germany) :
For decisive unions’ action to stop bosses’ plans!

Britain: Jeremy Corbyn’s EU u-turn
23/04/2016, Hannah Sell, Socialist Party deputy general secretary:
The bosses’ EU is no friend of workers

Belgium: New major social conflict in the making
22/04/2016, Els Deschoemacker, LSP/PSL (CWI in Belgium):
Second action plan needed to stop the Michel government

South Africa: Zuma & the ANC must fall
22/04/2016, Workers and Socialist Party (CWI in South Africa):
Build a socialist mass workers party for a government of the working class

Video: Paul Murphy speaks on Brexit referendum and for a socialist Europe
21/04/2016, socialistworld.net:
Socialist Party TD (MP) exposes real nature of EU in Irish parliament

Iceland: Mass protests continue
21/04/2016, Jonas Brännberg, Rättvisepartiet Socialisterna (CWI Sweden), in Reykjavik:
CWI’s programme explained

India: Workers oppose Modi proposals
21/04/2016, New Socialist Alternative (CWI India):
Eye-witness account of successful protest

Video: Peter Taaffe debates with Paul Mason on BBC TV
20/04/2016, socialistworld.net:
Socialist Party General Secretary debates with author and journalist on revolutionary socialism today

Sudan: Solidarity from the Education Rights Campaign (ERC) - Nigeria with the student protests in Khartoum
20/04/2016, Socialistworld.net:
The ERC, the national student campaign linked to the DSM (CWI in Nigeria) is displaying its support for the student movement in Sudan

Poland: Anger at abortion ban plan
20/04/2016, Paul Newberry, Alternatywa Socjalistyczna (CWI in Poland):
Protests and a new spontaneous movement for abortion rights erupt

Sudan: Solidarity with the students’ protests!
19/04/2016, Statement of Socialist Alternative (CWI in Sudan):
Free all arrested students now

Iran: Jailed trade unionists announce start of hunger strikes on April 29
19/04/2016, socialistworld.net:
Statement by Jafar Azimzadeh, a leader of the Free Union of Iranian Workers, and Esmail Abdi, a leader of the Iranian Teachers Trade Association

Video: Socialist TV appearance ’goes viral’ in US
18/04/2016, socialistworld.net:
FOX interview with Darletta Scruggs, Socialist Alternative member, viewed millions of times

Cuba: Obama’s visit
16/04/2016, Rogelio Manuel Díaz Moreno, socialist corespondent in Havana, Cuba:
Easing of embargo to promote US capitalist interests

Burma: Democrats have historic majority in parliament
16/04/2016, Keith Dickinson, Socialist Party (England and Wales):
But army remains powerful force

US: The Battle of New York: Sanders Campaign Faces Decisive Test
15/04/2016, Tom Crean, Socialist Alternative :

Belgium: Successful ‘Socialism 2016’ weekend event
14/04/2016, PSL-LSP (CWI in Belgium):
Inequality, war and insecurity show the urgency of the struggle for socialism

Britain: Panama Papers reveal corrupt system of the 1%
13/04/2016, Editorial from The Socialist (weekly paper of the Socialist Party, CWI England & Wales) :
Build a party in the interests of the millions not the millionaires

France: Workers and youth on the streets
12/04/2016, Clare Doyle, CWI :
Full-scale struggle with ‘Socialist’ government erupting

Hong Kong: Panama Papers: Hong Kong protest
12/04/2016, Socialist Action (CWI in Hong Kong) reporters:
“Tax the rich” shout protesters at Mossack Fonseca’s Hong Kong office

Netherlands: Dutch say ‘No’ to EU-Ukraine Treaty
11/04/2016, Pieter Brans, Socialist Alternative (CWI in Netherlands), Amsterdam :
Major blow against “endless austerity” Liberal/Labour government

Brazil: Solidarity with attacked civil servants
08/04/2016, LSR (CWI in Brazil) reporters:
Hired thugs beat rank and file trade union protesters

CWI Comment and Analysis

ANALYSIS

Israel/Palestine: The Marxist left, the national conflict and the Palestinian struggle
29/04/2016, Socialist Struggle Movement (CWI Israel-Palestine):
The necessity of a class approach and a socialist alternative

France: One-day strike set for 28 April
26/04/2016, Alex Rouillard, Gauche Revolutionnaire (CWI in France):
A final stage before indefinite action against Hollande’s government?

US: The un-Democratic Primary
22/04/2016, Kshama Sawant, Socialist Alternative Seattle, originally published on counterpunch.org:
Why we need new party of the 99%

Capitalism: a failing system
18/04/2016, Peter Taaffe, from May edition of Socialism Today, magazine of the Socialist Party (CWI in England & Wales):
A new book, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, analyses the downward course of the US economy – and the limits of the whole capitalist system

Review: ’Militant’ by Michael Crick
14/04/2016, Peter Taaffe, Socialist Party (CWI in England & Wales) general secretary:
Lessons of Militant vital for anti-austerity struggles today

Britain: A new moment
28/03/2016, Socialist Party (CWI in England & Wales), published in April 2016 issue of Socialism Today:
Extracts from a statement discussed at the Socialist Party’s recent congress

Ireland: 100th anniversary of Easter 1916 Rising
26/03/2016, Cillian Gillespie, Socialist Party (CWI Ireland):
A revolt against imperial power and war

History: When Khrushchev denounced Stalin
26/03/2016, Niall Mulholland, from Socialism Today (April 2016 issue of the monthly journal of Socialist Party, England & Wales):
1956 ‘secret speech’ a devastating blow to Stalinist regimes

11th CWI World Congress: World Perspectives
22/03/2016, socialistworld.net:
Amended agreed version of the World Perspectives document agreed by the CWI’s 11th World Congress

Germany: Big gains for right-wing, nationalist, AfD in state elections
22/03/2016, Sascha Stanicic, Sozialistische Alternative (CWI in Germany):
DIE LINKE (Left Party) urgently needs to change course

US: Sanders needs to run as an independent in November
18/03/2016, Calvin Priest, Socialist Alternative (CWI supporters in USA):
Continuing the Political Revolution

European Union: Alliance with Turkey to close borders
09/03/2016, Per-Ãke Westerlund, from Offensiv - the weekly paper of Rattvisepartiet Socialisterna (CWI in Sweden):
Crises for refugees - and the EU – continues

Germany: Between hatred and solidarity
08/03/2016, By Sascha Stanicic, Sozialistische Alternative (CWI in Germany):
The situation in Germany

Turkey: No intervention in Syria! Stop the war on the Kurds!
01/03/2016, By Murat Karin, Sosyalist Alternatif (CWI in Turkey) and Paula Mitchell, Socialist Party (CWI in England & Wales):
Two articles on the current situation in Turkey and Kurdistan

US: Nevada Goes to Clinton – Sanders Looks to Super Tuesday
26/02/2016, Calvin Priest, Socialist Alternative (CWI in the USA):
Huge enthusiasm for Bernie Sanders’ call for a political revolution leads to serious challenge to Hillary Clinton

Five years on from the “Arab Spring”
20/02/2016, Serge Jordan (CWI), article to be published in the March 2016 edition of Socialism Today, No.196.:
The “Arab Spring” revolutionary wave brought dictators in Tunisia and Egypt crashing down. It swept through the Middle East, inspiring workers and youth the world over. It has since ebbed, however, leaving the region wracked with war and sectarian conflict.

CWI 11th World Congress: South Asia wracked by instability
15/02/2016, Geert Cool, CWI Belgium:
Huge potential for workers’ struggles

US: Bernie’s political revolution opens new era for American politics
13/02/2016, Patrick Ayers, Socialist Alternative (CWI in the USA):
Build a #Movement4Bernie to Defeat the Billionaire Class and the Democratic Party Establishment.

CWI 11th World Congress 2016: Women and oppression in class society
13/02/2016, CWI World Congress Document:
A socialist approach

CWI 11th World Congress: Upheaval of traditional European political framework
12/02/2016, Sarah Wrack, Socialist Party (CWI England & Wales):
Workers’ fury at austerity and capitalist system will find more expression

11th CWI World Congress: A World in turmoil
11/02/2016, Kevin Parslow, Socialist Party (CWI England & Wales):
Renewed economic crisis, wars, political polarisation & class struggle perspectives

Africa: New political storms and mass struggles
08/02/2016, CWI 11th World Congress Document:
Opportunities will arise for working class and poor to organise

India: Rising class struggle reflects seething anger of working class
08/02/2016, Anand Kumar, from Dudiyora Horaata (Workers’ Struggle – newspaper of the CWI in India), Bangalore:
Is ‘Modimania’ on the wane?

World relations, economy and the class struggle
08/02/2016, Socialistworld.net:
CWI 11th World Congress document

Spain: A break in the political establishment
07/02/2016, Danny Byrne, CWI (article from issue 195 of ’Socialism Today’):
December’s elections broke the hold of the two main capitalist parties for the first time since the Franco dictatorship. The high vote for representatives of workers’ and social movements, and the recovery of the left-populist Podemos, open up a new phase in the struggle against austerity.